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The processing of radioactive wastes may be done for economic reasons (e.g. to reduce the volume for storage or disposal, or to recover a "resource" from the waste), or safety reasons (e.g. converting the waste to a more "stable" form, such as one that will contain the radionuclide inventory for a long time). Typically processing involves reducing the volume of the waste (e.g. by incineration or compaction); solidifying non-solid wastes to make them physically stable, and packaging the waste to isolate it from the environment.

The links on this page deal with various aspects of radioactive waste processing. Note: Links identified with are in Adobe Acrobat PDF format. You may need a special plugin to access these pages. Some web sites may not be in English. See index here for language codes, such as    JP / EN .


  • Army Corps of Engineers Guidance for LLRW & MW Treatment (US)   EN 
  • BNL Environmental & Waste Technology Center (US)   EN 
  • Broad Spectrum Treatment BOAs (US)   EN 
  • DOE/LLW-240 - Commercially Available LLRW & Mixed Waste Treatment Technologies (US)   EN 
  • Hot Demonstrations of Nuclear-Waste Processing Technologies (US)   EN 
  • Improvements of Radioactive Waste Management at WWER Nuclear Power Plants (IAEA)   EN 
  • Innovative Waste Treatment & Conditioning Technologies at Nuclear Power Plants (IAEA)   EN 
  • Management of Waste Containing Tritium & Carbon-14 (IAEA)   EN 
  • Predisposal Management of Organic Radioactive Waste (IAEA)   EN 
  • Processing of Nuclear Wastes (International)   EN 
  • Radioactive waste at Russian naval bases (Norway)   EN / NO / RU 
  • Selection of Efficient Options for Processing & Storage of Radioactive Waste in Countries with Small Amounts of Waste Generation (IAEA)   EN 
  • UIC Report - Radioactive Waste Management (Australia)   EN 
  • UIC Report - Waste Management in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (Australia)   EN 
  • Waste & Material Disposition Service Center (US)   EN 
  • Waste Treatment Technologies (US)   EN 


  • Application of Membrane Technologies for Liquid Radioactive Waste Processing (IAEA)   EN 
  • GAAT Waste Conditioning System (US)   EN 
  • TFA - Tanks Focus Area (US)   EN 
  •   TFA Technology Guide (US)   EN 
  • West Valley - Radioactive Waste Processing (US)   EN 


  • 10 CFR 60.135: Criteria for the waste package & its components (US)   EN 
  • Multi-purpose Container Technologies for Spent Fuel Management (IAEA)   EN 
  • Requirements & Methods for LILW Package Acceptability (IAEA)   EN 

    Spent fuel reprocessing

  • COGEMA La Hague Site (France)   EN / FR 
  • Economic Forecast Study of the Nuclear Power Option (France)   EN 
  • The International Civilian Reprocessing Business (US)   EN 
  •   L'industrie internationale du retraitement civil (US)   FR 
  •   The International Civilian Reprocessing Business [in Russian] (US)   RU 
  • International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage, Reprocessing & Disposal (US)   EN 
  • Japan's Nuclear Fuel Recycling Program (Japan)   EN 
  • JNFL Reprocessing (Japan)   EN 
  • KARP - Kalpakkam Atomic Reprocessing Plant, India (US)   EN 
  • Materials Used in a Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant (US)   EN 
  • NMFA - Nuclear Materials Focus Area (US)   EN 
  • The Nuclear Wastelands (Netherlands)   EN 
  • Plutonium & Reprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel (US)   EN 
  • Plutonium Recovery from Spent Fuel Reprocessing (US)   EN 
  • Reprocessing at THORP (UK)   EN 
  • Reprocessing Overview (UK)   EN 
  • Reprocessing & recycling (UK)   EN 
  • Reprocessing spent fuel (International)   EN 
  • WAK - Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)   DE / EN 
  • West Valley Demonstration Project (US)   EN 
  • Why reprocess nuclear fuel? (UK)   EN 

    Thermal treatment (incineration, vitrification, plasma arc, etc.)

  • Glass as a Waste Form & Vitrification Technology (US)   EN 
  • In Situ Vitrification (US)   EN 
  • Using the Centrifugal Method for Plasma-Arc Vitrification of Waste (US)   EN 
  • Vitrification: How nuclear waste is turned into glass (US)   EN 
  • La vitrification des déchets (France)   FR 


  • CASSST - Codes & Standards for Solidification/Stabilisation Technology (UK)   EN 
  • DCP - Dounreay Cementation Plant (UK)   EN 
  • Gestion de Desechos Radiactivos (Chile)   ES 
  • Geopolymer Institute (France)   EN / FR 
  • ISL - Immobilisation Science Laboratory (UK)   EN 
  • Retrieval of Fluidizable Radioactive Wastes from Storage Facilities (IAEA)   EN 
  • RWIN - Radioactive Waste Immobilisation Network (UK)   EN 
  • STARNET - Stabilisation/Solidification Treatment & Remediation Network (UK)   EN 
  • Synroc (Australia)   EN 

    Volume reduction

  • CILVA (Belgium)   EN 
  • COVRA - Centrale Organisatie Voor Radioactief Afval (Netherlands)   NL / EN 
  •   COVRA - additional info (Netherlands)   EN 
  • LLW Volume Reduction System (Russia)   EN 
  • The Use of Monte Carlo Simulation to Optimise the Supercompaction Process (UK)   EN 
  • WRACS - Waste Receipt Assay Characterisation & Supercompaction Facility (UK)   EN 
  • WROC - INEEL Waste Reduction Operations Complex (US)   EN 
  • ZWILAG - Zentrales Zwischenlager Würenlingen (Switzerland)   DE 

    ADS / ATW / Transmutation

  • Accelerator-Driven Systems (Czech Republic)   EN / CZ 
  • ADOPT - Thematic Network on ADvanced Options for Partioning & Transmutation (Belgium)   IT 
  • AFCI - Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (US)   EN 
  • ATW - Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (US)   EN 
  • The Case for ADS (Germany)   EN 
  • ENEA Progetto ADS (Italy)   IT 
  • KALLA ADS - Accelerator Driven Systems (Germany)   EN 
  • Nuclear Waste Burners (Netherlands)   EN 
  • Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation (US)   EN 
  • Review of National ADS Programmes for Partitioning & Transmutation (IAEA)   EN 
  • RWMAC Advice on the Application of Partitioning & Transmutation (UK)   EN 
  • Transmutation of Radioactive Waste (NEA)   EN 
  • TRASCO - TRAsmutazione SCOrie (Italy)   EN 

    Other processing

  • Processing & Storage of LLW from Nuclear Submarines (Russia)   EN 

    Other resources

  • ATTIC - EPA Alternative Treatment Technology Information Center (US)   EN 
  • GET - NEDO Global Environmental Technology (Japan)   JP / EN 

      >>> See also: Nuclear products & services directory


    WasteLink and the site are maintained by Herne Data Systems Ltd.. Editorial material on is © copyright 1996 - 2009 Herne Data Systems Ltd. While we periodically check every link, neither nor Herne Data Systems Ltd. assume any responsibility for the content of any of the material contained in the links from this site. Comments, suggestions, additions and corrections can be sent to us at: (

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    (This page last updated 2009-02-11).